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The Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) was developed to establish and promote best practice in injection technique for all involved in diabetes care. The founding members are experienced diabetes specialist nurses.

The key aims are to raise awareness of existing and emerging research relating to injection technique and the impact this may have on health outcomes for those with diabetes that require subcutaneous injection therapy.

FIT was established following the publication of the international New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes, (Diabetes & Metabolism 2010). These recommendations were first published in 2012 and this second edition has been updated in accordance with current research evidence. These recommendations are informed by the New Insulin Delivery Recommendations. (1)

Diabetes is a serious health problem which has been described as the most challenging health issue of the 21st Century. (2) The latest research evidence in Ireland estimates prevalence of doctor diagnosed diabetes among adults is approximately 5.2% of the population. (3) The cost of diabetes care is a major burden for the Irish Health Service Executive. The Codeire study suggested 10% of the national healthcare budget is spent on treating the condition and its related complications. (4)

It is estimated that almost 30% of people with diabetes use injectable therapies(5). For injectable therapies to work optimally, correct injection technique is essential and, therefore, an improvement in technique could potentially contribute to managing the cost of diabetes care.

FIT is an autonomous organisation whose mission is to support people with diabetes requiring injectable therapies in achieving the best possible health outcomes, by ensuring that the correct dose is delivered to the correct injection site, using the correct technique, each and every time, whilst improving outcomes.(1)

The development of FIT and the subsequent Irish Injection Technique Recommendations have been supported by BD Europe and endorsed by various bodies in Ireland including pharmaceutical companies whose therapies include subcutaneous injections of insulin and GLP-1 agonists. FIT is committed to supporting the implementation of the recommendations by all those involved in diabetes care. These recommendations will be updated at regular intervals to include new research evidence as it emerges.

We therefore welcome any comments, suggestions and active participation in ensuring that the recommendations remain relevant and useful for now and the future.



Sonya Browne
Clinical Nurse Specialist 2

Helen Burke
Advanced Nurse Practitioner

Patricia Murphy
Clinical Nurse Specialist

Yvonne Moloney
Advanced Midwife Practitioner


1. MD, S Halimi MD, D Hicks DSN, L J. Hirsch
MD, M J. Smith DSN, R Wellhoener MD, B
W. Bode MD, Irl B. Hirsch MD, S Kalra MD,
September 2016
2. Nolan JJ1, O’Halloran D, McKenna TJ, Firth
R, Re IDF Diabetes Atlas The cost of treating
type 2 diabetes (CODEIRE). Ir Med J. 2006
3. L. Guariguata a,*, D.R. Whiting b, I.
Hambleton c, J. Beagley a, U. Linnenkamp
a, J.E. Shaw d Gobal estimates of diabetes
prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035
4.  M L. Tracey, M Gilmartin, K O’Neill, A P.
Fitzgerald, S M. McHugh, C M. Buckley, R J.
Canavan and P M. Kearney. Epidemiology of
diabetes and complications among adults
in the Republic of Ireland 1998-2015: a
systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC
Public Health (2016) 16:132 DOI 10.1186/
5.  Diabetes inhaler rejected for NHS, BBC
News, 19 April 2006